15 de noviembre de 2007

Meli Witran Mapu

Los Mapuches (Gente de la tierra) son un pueblo indígena de la zona sur de Argentina y Chile. Vivían principalmente de la agricultura y su cultura se basaba en la tradición oral ya que no conocían la lectura ni la escritura. Su lengua es el mapudungun.
Sus creencias se basan especialmente en el culto a los espiritus y antepasados, llamados genéricamente Pillanes y Wangulén. Rinden culto a las fuerzas de la naturaleza que en su conjunto se llaman Ngen. Creen en un ser superior que los gobierna llamado Ngenechén, formado por 4 espiritus o personas que antes de la influencia cristiana se trataba de espiritus individuales.
La música tradicional mapuche es principalmente religiosa, aunque también existen composiciones amorosas y canciones acerca de la tierra natal, y sus melodías de temple monótono y triste. Usa instrumentos de percusión como el cultrún, de uso exclusivamente ritual, y las cascahuillas (cascabeles).
El Cultrún, de forma semiesférica como el timbal, su cuerpo de madera, se talla de un trozo de madera de un árbol que fue talado en invierno para que no se parta. Este trozo de madera se va ahuecando hasta darle la forma de la caja de resonancia, o sea de un casquete esférico. En la boca de este recipiente se le ata un parche de cuero tensado con tientos que lo abrazan el cuerpo del tambor.
El parche suele estar decorado con motivos muy abstractos, por ejemplo, el que representa las cuatro direcciones del mundo o Meli Witran Mapu y en cuyos extremos están los tres dedos de una pata de Choique (*) (ñandú). En cada uno de los cuadrantes se agregan dibujos del sol, la luna y las estrellas. Su símbolo se refiere al equilibrio cósmico y a los cambios constantes (Entre otros significados más).


Y ahora llevo una parte de esa historia que tanto me gusta, en el omoplato izquierdo.

(*) Choique, también conocido como Suri, es conocida como el ave de los vientos y las tormentas ya que ante una futura tormenta, el ave bate sus alas avisando lo que se avecina.

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